ch 8 Sociality
141 "T templates fr chimp & hmn soc bh hmn soc bhvr r v similr in a central feature, that of terr defense & t willingness to solve t prob of a hostile neighboring soc by seeking its extermination."
142-3 Patrilocality in hmns & chimps, rare in other primates.
Chimps: communities up to 120 members, move in bands of ~20 w shifting membership, "fission-fusion soc".
aggr defend terr, lethal raids on neighbors.
Fem gather fruit in terr, lrgr terr more kids.
144 M dom over f: "Every adult m demands deference frm every f, resorting to immediate violence if a submiss response is nt forthcoming."
m becomes alpha in violent "election". alpha m 36% of all conceptions, other hi rnk m's 50%.
145 f ihierarchy, infanticide of rival offspring by dom f
146 chimps use tools, bonobos nt.
Bonobos: no gorillas in terr, eat both fruit & herbs, abundant food in terr, less competitive.
f's form alliances & gang up on m's. concealed estrus, unknown patenity, less m comp
Hmn bhvr midway btwn chimp & bon.
151 "Warfare btwn pre-state socs ws incessant, merciless, & condcted w t general purpse, often achieved, of annihilating t opponent."
Primitive soc's:: 65% at war const, 87% > once/yr. Avg lost .5% pop in combat /yr. 30% ang lost in pitched battles.
155 Cannibalism - fnd in Anasazi of Amer SW, Central & S Amer, Fiji, NZ, New Guinea, Africa.
Protection agnst mad cow disease, fnd in UK & wrldwide, came frm gen immunity to hmn brain prions amng early cannibals
Reciprocal atruism & post-tribal soc
160 50-100 max size fr kin-based soc.
Reciprocity, fairness, trade, trust - oxytocin & vasopressin
165 Religion coevolved w/lang as counteractive against lying, cheating & freeloading. Sacred = guarantee of truth, oaths, vows
* doesn't explain concept of Trickster gods, Gr poets as divinely-inspired liars.
Ritual began at hunter-gath stage.
167 "when leaders & elites emerged in settled socs.... t elites coopted t ritual practices as another mech of soc cntrl & as a means of justifying thr privileged position."
theocracy, sacred kings
* sacred city, geom of centralization v. agoric sprawl
169 Pr bondng, "privatization of sex", taboo agnst pub sex disply unlike exhibitionist chimps - decreases temptation & reduces m comp
171 Mistaken paternity - 5-10% in avg Amer & UK pops. 10% avg Amer.
171-2 Sperm competition causes sperm genes to evolve rapidly in chimps & hmns. Heteropaternity - twins by diff dads
176 Gracialization - thinning of skull - indicates more civilized, less aggressive. Domestication o hmns. Asians & Sub-Sahar Afs most gracile, Euros more robust
Pedomorphic evol - domestic animals retain juvenile traiits into adulthood. Tameness breeds cuteness. Bonobos more pedomorphic thn chimps.
178-9 Early socs 3 lvls o complexity: local grps, regional polities (archaic states)
Hunter-gath family based, w some trans-family reciprocity.
Settled socs surpluses, trade, headmen
Archaic states - last 5000 yrs
180 "In the emergence of these early hmn states, 2 strng forces were at work, & still shape rlns btwn sts in t contemp wrld. One is t need fr defense. t other the dependence on trade. Bth o these st behavrs spring frm t deepest wells o hmn nature, t contrary instincts fr aggression & reciprocity.
In 2002, .3% of deaths caused by war
"An elemt o hmn choice, a preference fr negotiation over annihilation, hs perhaps bn injected into t genome. & tht mght explain why thr is an inescapable sense o progress abt hmn evol over t last 10,000 yrs: hmn choice hs imposed a direction on t blind forces tht hv hitherto shaped evol's random walk."
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