175 Chauvet cave in Fr. Symbolic artifacts app suddenly in prehist Eur; Seabright thinks brought by "recent immigants" (from Africa) "like many of t creative members o any soc"
176 * Symb artifacts: nt mere representation, bt recombinable signs. Ppl w /animal parts
184 Symb artfcts danger o being copied or revealing secrts to enemies. IP as means of trust
IP discourages innovation b/c owners won't sell info to potential competitors
198 impoverished 3rd world villages "information islands". too little contact w. outside wrld to attract investors
ch 13 states & empires
217-8 agric required lrgr grps to defend supplies. Walled settlemnts began coercion to prevent freeriding on public goods, beginning o gov't.
(Contrary to Wade) Cavilli-Sforza fnd distrib agric tech to Eur frm Mid East 7500-3000 BC matches gene freqs. Migrant farmers interbred w/ natives.
220 almost all socs hd slaves at some time in hist
Strength & Prosperity
221-2 wealthy settlemnts attracted envious neighbors. Armies for protection -> inc neighbor's hostility, competitive spiral.
"Strength thru prosperity": city-states, such as Gr's, engaged in trade w/ at least some neghbrs, used wealth to fund army
"Prosp thru strength", empires, tried to gain wlth thru conquest. less successfl.
222 * Grs v. Persians. Gr city -states "soldiers who wr indep & free prop owners", favored pitched battles rthr thn long-drawn-out campaigns. kicked Persians' ass b/c P's lacked wealth to carry on war
223 Hanson: "farmers, traders & merchnts do nt work if they r nt pd."
Paul Kennedy: since 1500, empires tend to overextend thmslvs.
Hanson: ancient empires took lng time to overextend, dep. on chance.
224 tech advance sometimes favors empire, smtms resistance.
225 * historically, prior to WWII, trade btwn states did nt prevent war.
Euro pwrs over last 500 displaced rivalry to colonial expnsn
disparity o pwr, esp. grwing disparity, encourages hostility. same w/ other species in wh adults kill each other: chimps, lions, wlvs, spotted hyenas -- bands of disparate size encounter e/o
230 gov't is as subject to intrnl div o labor & knwldge segmentation as other sectors o soc
242 Medieval Islam ws tolerant in periods whn hd no rivals
245 WHO 2001: 20% deaths frm disease, 1% frm war & violence. more deaths by suicide thn by others.
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