72 Christian anarchism -
Wm. Ellery Channing (1780-1842), Puritan separatism, schism w/in Amer Prot w/ led to Unitarianism. Innate hmn goodness, perfectibility, free will. Abolitionism, pacifism, anti-annexation o Texas, civil disobed.
73 Perfectionism, founder John Humphrey Noyes (1811-1886). Orator Wm. Lloyd Garrison (1805-79).
Colony Oneida, NY founded 1848. an-comm, voluntarism, communal marriage. Most prosperous Utopian comnty.
78 Garrison 1854 burned Fugitve Slv Act & Constitution. Called Const "a covenant w death & agreemnt w hell".
1837 New Eng Non-Resistant Soc. replace laws o man w laws o God.
80 Civil War confused many anarchs since pitted pacifism, right o secession v. abolition
81 Lysander Spooner (1808-1887). Studied const. law.
1844 created pvt postal sys wh undersold govt. Govt closed it dwn.
83-4 Stephen Pearl Andrews (1812-1886). 85 "an unmalevolent Mephistopheles". Studied law & medicine, spoke 32 langs.
1852 T Science o Soc. Warren's principle o cost, ind sovrnty.
86 Wm. Bradford Greene (1819-1893). Served in US Arrny & as Unitarian minister.
1850 Mutual Banking - Proudhonian mutualism, mutualist land bank. A Land Bank d bn established in Mass 1740, successful until disslved by Brit Parliament.
88 change after Civ War:"t romantic philosophy & soc criticism o t 1st half o t century lay in ruins." After slavery, E. capitalism v. W. agrarianism. Large-scl manufacture, mining, transcontinental RR. "If they cd get more money, men wr willing to give t state more coercive pwrs; if indstry wd prosper, they wr willing to conc auth in t hands o a few central figures."
88-9 Ezra Heywood (1829-93) - assoc o Greene. labor reform & decentralization
1869 New Eng Labor Refrm League
1871 Amer Labor Refrm League
90 Arrested svrl times under Comstock Laws fr snding obscenity thru mail
ch 9 War Amng t Radicals
91 early 1800s - comms, socs & anarchs worked together
1864 - 1st International. London Intrntl Working Men's Assoc. fnded by mutualists. Socs & Comms dominated ovr anarchs.
1872 - splt btwn Marxists & Bakuninists
1881 Chicago Black Interntl.
93-4 Chic & NY major cntrs o immig an-comms
1880 - lrg immig frm Ger, S. Eur, E. Eur. Many anarchs frm Grer, Aust-Hung.
94-5 Johann Most (1846-1906). came to US 1882. an-comm. speaker & orator, based in NY. Periodical Freiheit. advocated "propaganda by Deed" (violence).
96 1883 Pittsburgh Congress, led by Most. Manifesto calling fr violent rev o workers. Anarcs fell into disunion.
98-9 Chicago - armed workingmen, violent strikes. "Chicago idea" - anarcho-syndicalism. 1884, anarch Central Labor Union
100-116 Haymarket Affair. May 4, 1886. Unknown person tossed bomb into peaceful rally in Haymarket sq, Randolph St, Chicago, in wh August Spies ws speaking. A small group of anarchs wr convicted in show trial on false & flimsy evidence, some hanged. In 1892, defendants pardoned by Illinois gov Peter Altgeld, wh cost him his career.
ch 11 Benjamin Tucker, last great indvidualist
117 Voltairine de Claire (1866-1913). converted to anarchism by Haymarket Affair. Thought "philosophical anarchists" too intellectual & shd appeal more to emotion.
Ben Tucker, 1854-
Influences: evol thry, Darwin, Huxley, Tyndall; J. S. Mill, Spencer. Anarchs Wendell Phillips, Wm Lloyd Garrison, Warren, Spooner, Greene, Heywood.
had rlnship w/ Victoria Woodhull, anarch, suffragette & clairvoyant.
124 Tucker's econ: labor thry value, anti-usury. Rent, interest & profit exist only b/c govt-granted monopoly.
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