ch 5. Rise o Indiv Anarch
38 R W Emerson (1803-82)
40 Henry David Thoreau (1817-62) more activist thn Emerson
1845-7 stayed at Walden
1846 refused to pay tax to support Mexican-Amer War (1846-8) wh extended slavery . Put in jail for 1 night, friends paid tax fr him. Wrote On the Duty of Civil Disobedience.
45 early 1800's - industrialization, loss o indep farmland in E led ppl to migrate W. Govt granted free land to (white) settlers to contain discontent.
"Even whn a sheriff or marshal managed to create some sort o authority sructure, he still had to depend on t town's public opinion & good will whn he needed a posse."
46 * W settlers utilized mutualism, barter & pvt money.
46-7 Principles o Ind Anarch:
anti collective authority
right o pvt property
sovereignty o indiv
equality o gender, race, other soc groups
anti-usury: rent, interest, dividends, capital profits. Income shd be product o own labor
anti democracy, maj role oppression o indiv
use of civil disobedience, nonviolent resistance, & (rarely) property destruction. General rejection o violence.
ch 6 Josiah Warren (1798-1874) b. Boston. inventor & entrepreneur. invented lard-burning lamp & printing press.
48-9 Over 100 utopian communities in 19th c US
Harmony, Indiana founded by Rappites. Robert Owen,socialist, purchased colony & turned it into New Harmony.
Warren met Owen 1825, joined New Harmony. Group declined wh he blamed on socialism destroying incentive.
51 1827, Warren opened Time Store in Cincinnati. First commercial cooperative market, or co-op.
Semi-barter sys w/ "labor notes".
53 * national currency not enforced over US until 1866.
Time Store successful, bt Warren closed it 1830 to move on to new endeavors.
founded 3 colonies:
1. 1835 Village of Equity , OH, on Tuscarora R. 1st antistatist utopia in W world. Cooperative mill. Econ prosp but closed due to malaria.
2. 1847, Utopia, on Ohio R. Used labor note sys & succeeded fr 25 yrs, even after Warren left fr other endeavours in 1848.
3. 1850 Modern Times on Long Island, NY, w/ Stephen Pearl Andrews. Labor exchng, free love, no marriage, feminism. Lasted 20 yrs bt succumbed to sensationalism.
1847 Equitable Commerce
1869 True Civilization, anti-communism.
Magazine: Peaceful Revolutionist, printed on own press.
ch 7 Influences
64-5 Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-65)
1840 What Is Property?
Mutual bank - similar to Time Store.
66 Federalism "interior & voluntary distrib throughout soc of sovereignty & gov't". Influenced Populist movmnt in 1890's US, Middle West & West farmers.
1848 Fr, Louis Philippe overthrown, Republic established, bt nt enuf reform to satisfy radicals. Workers revolt & r put down.
67 Forty-Eighters, Proudhonian Anarchs in US, inc Fr & Ger expats. W. B. Greene & Charles A. Dana. Elisee Reclus - anarcho-comm. Carl Heinzen.
Foreign-born anarchs more communistic, conflict w/ Amer indivs.
67-70 John Stuart MIll: econ sys soc constructed, no single right form o econ justice.
Herbert Spencer: Soc Statics, 1850. "T Right to Ignore t State". "Govt is essentially immoral" & will wither away thru evol.
Max Stirner 1845, T Ego & His Own.
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