183 Neil Risch, U o California geneticist. 5 continent-based races:
African - Sub-Saharan
Caucasian - W Eurasia, Euro, Middle East, N Af, Indian subcont
Asian - E Eurasia, Ch, Jap, Indochina, Phillipines, Siberia
Pacific Islanders - Aust Abos, New Guinea, Melanesia, Micronesia
Native Am - N & S Am
skin color varies w/in ea race.
Admixtures: found in boundary or colonial regions
Ethiopians , Somalis = Af + Cauc
Af-American - avg 17 % Cauc
Hispanic = Af + Cauc + NA. Mexicans =39% NA, 58% Cauc, 3 % Af.
Only 2.4% Americas biracial, 2000 census.
187 2002 Marcus Feldman Stanford U. sample 377 sites of the genome. DNA fell into 5 clusters corr to cont races.
Can pinpoint region/ethnicity & specific components o admixture
188 Genetic race markers not part of genes or control regions, but may be indirectly corr w/ genes. Only 3% DNA genes
191 Richard Lewontin 1972. Wright's fixation index, FST =
variation btwn pops/variation w/in pop = 6.3%
Others found it 10-15%. Sewall Wright: "If racial diffs this lrg were seen in another species, they would be called subspecies."
6000 diff global langs, all part of same family tree corr to hmn gen pops
New Guinea 1200 langs, 1/5 world total
Spread zone - large area dom by sing lang.
Mosaic zone - mny sm regs w/ diff langs
104-5 langs serv to diff grps, insider/outsider, friend/foe. "Mosaic zones presumably come into being whn sm tribal grps coexist fr a lng time in t sm plc, w none being able to overrun t others."
Spread zn frmed whn new spc is colonized, either orig or by wiping out native pop. Spread zns then "fragment & crystallize" into mos zns
106 Agriculture & warfare frm spr zn. pops expand outwd frm center
Wheat Center - Fertile Crescent, spawned Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Dravidian.
Rice Cntr, Yangtze & Yellow R basin, Austroasiatic, Tai, Sino-Tibetan, Austronesian
Marija Gimbutas thry - Kurgan ppl, warrior-pastoralists frm Russ steppes sprd lang thru conquest 4000 BC+
Colin Renfrew - farmers frm Anatolia, Turkey spread into Eur w/ Neolithic Rev 9,500 y/a, bringing farming & lang
linguistic phylogenetic tree analysis supports Renfrew.
farming + IE lang spread faster thn genes; Euros hv <20% Anatoln gns
118 Joseph H. Greenberg - all langs belong to 14 superfamilies
223 Cavalli-Sforza - gen wrld pop tree stat. corresponds to lang fams
1st cities 6000 y/a Uruk, Iraq
Invention writing 3400 y/a. Great urban civs Egypt, Mesopot, Ind, Ch
234-6 Y chrom evidence: Genghis Khan (d. 1227) hs 16 million male descendents, .5% wrld total
Manchu Y chrom 1.5 mil m
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